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They ask inappropriate questions and show no empathy towards the victim, making her go through the trauma of being raped and abused all over again. Unavailability of proper rape kits and humiliating medical procedure of rape investigation cause the victim to petrify and take the decision of not reporting the case all together.

The stigma attached to a rape victim in our society makes the matter worse. The victim gets blamed that they brought it on themselves by their provocative dressing.

Girls in many parts of India have been banned from wearing skirts as a uniform, citing it as the reason for increased cases of sexual harassment. We need to understand that one psychological setup cannot fuel all the rapes. Sex can be an objective but it can also be an instrument that leads to the achievement of another objective.

Some of the most common psychological drives behind why men rape are: 3. By overpowering someone from the opposite sex the man can feel relieved of the shame of rejection. The subconscious mind makes the rapist believe that people who share certain similarities are the same person. Like one might fall in love with a woman just because she looks like a woman you loved before, same goes for rape. A man can rape a woman just because she resembles a woman who rejected him earlier.

Feeling superior to women and Expression of power: The mindset that men are superior to women makes a lot of men prove their superiority over women by dominating and forcing themselves on women to prove the fact.

In other words some men rape women in order to assert their manhood and masculinity. Suppose that a man had a very tough boss who happened to be a woman. Those men are put under pressure by their peers and as a result they start to experience shame. Some of those men start to rape in order to compensate for the lack of intimacy in their social lives. Regaining control: I explained how people who lack control over their own lives try to exert control over the less powerful ones they know.

There are some anti-social elements that are ticking time-bombs, capable of committing crimes and disregarding rules of society.

But most of these perpetrators do not set off alarms by their behaviour, appearance and conduct as they are regular looking men with whom women and children interact as a part of society. These men are our local neighbours, trusted friends, teachers, and even family members. There is nothing wrong in being a patriarchal society; the problem in India is that mentally people are trapped by feudal mindsets, which reinforce the belief that men are superior.

Men who grow up with such mindset lose regard for the women and try to overpower them by exercising domination over them and committing rape or sexual crimes. Studies have found that rape is not usually an outcome of lust but men predominantly rape as a measure of taking revenge on the women, in order to teach a lesson and to hurt their spirit. It has also been found that assailants driven by lust have no intention of killing their victim; on the contrary men seeking out revenge are capable of causing further harm to their victim as they derive sadistic satisfaction by inflicting pain on their victims.

Deciphering Rape in India 41 In the Nirbhaya case, the accused during the trial stated that because she reacted to their taunts and spoke back and stood up to them she was raped and subsequently tortured as a punishment. Men who commit gang-rapes are driven by group mentality and predominantly wish to be held in high esteem amongst their peers. They demonstrate sexually aggressive behaviour in order to prove their toughness and masculinity. Men derive sexual pleasure from these acts and also enjoy inflicting humiliation on to the physically weaker side.

Experts believe that the perpetrators, who sexually exploit the children, develop this disorder for sexual preferences from childhood experiences during critical periods in human development. In many cases, paedophiles have been molested themselves as children, when they lacked the ability to control the situation.

By sexually assaulting children, paedophiles attempt to re-live the trauma they experienced and the complete role reversal gives them the upper hand and prevents them from being victimized.

The way women dress is routinely cited as an provocation to rape, sheer and clinging fabrics, cleavage, bare midriffs, short skirts and liberally applied make-up are common in the context of rape trials. Women are often judged on the basis of the way they present themselves. The assumption that such choices can lead to rape are ludicrous and extremely damaging. Although she is the victim, it is the woman, and not her alleged attacker who is held up for public examination.

Inspecting the way in which a woman was dressed at the time of an assault is one of many ways in which common myths and prejudices are exploited in order to damage her reputation and credibility in the interests of the defense.

The perpetrator whose behaviour and intentions are of far more relevance than the victims clothing is rarely asked to take the stand or made to account for his choices or behaviour. The purpose of such distortion is to give jurors the impression that the woman is provocative and therefore to blame for the assault. The right to sexual autonomy to which all of us are entitled means complete control over what we do with our bodies, with whom, when — and for how long. However, although alcohol consumption is something in which anyone over 18 is free to indulge, in the public discourse around rape and sexual assault, its significance is something that plays out very differently for women than it does for men.

Alcohol is seen both as something that greatly increases the vulnerability of women not only to rape, but also, perversely, to accusations of blame for that rape. Although it is men who perpetrate rape, it is women who are urged to modify their behaviour by abstaining or drinking less, and thus accommodate the danger posed by predatory men.

Alcohol is used by men who rape both as a means of incapacitating the women they assault, and also as an excuse for their own behaviour.

Deciphering Rape in India 43 The rigid, deep rooted and out of sync social attitudes make Indian women face umpteen challenges in accessing education, work, equal status, freedom of movement and choice which further aid violence against women.

We need to get a better understanding of our culture; by going back in time and revisiting the Vedas and understanding that how over the time we have twisted customs and traditions to destroy the actual eminence that the women in India once enjoyed.

Easy access to education for women needs to be emphasized. We need to reach out to people through word of mouth and advocate the positives it will bring towards women and the society. Men need to be made aware that a NO actually means NO. A woman needs to be respected and treated equal. She has equal right to share workplace, home or any other platform in the society with a man. And in doing so she needs to be accepted, protected and appreciated.

People in society need to take the issue of rape more seriously. They need to be sensitized and made aware of dealing with the victims in order to empathize with the victim and in order to act as a support to them instead of victimizing them more.

We need to make systemic changes, legislative and societal changes to make India safer for women. The definition of rape needs to be widened to bring all forms of non-consensual penetration within the definition of rape. The exception to marital rape should be removed. In defining rapes, the relationship of the two parties should not be considered at all. The law must be gender neutral and must include the rape of men too.

We need to look into the Amendment of Sexual Harassment Act. Therefore, it is a psychological issue. Hence, we need to start educating our children early. Installation of CCTV cameras in all police stations. Officers who refuse to file an FIR must be suspended. Making people more aware of the facilities that are available. People are not aware that you can lodge a rape report online, awareness needs to be raised in this regard. Increase number of women in the police force.

The two-finger test is demeaning, unreliable and humiliating, it has been banned but it is still in practice. Building toilets can solve not only sanitary and health related problems but even the reduce the instances of rape. More Effective and Efficient Crisis centers should be made functional to provide medical, legal and police aid to the victims of sexual assault in rural and urban areas.

Well lite areas can help in keeping miscreants away from getting into activities of sexual nature in lonely stretches. Maintain a database that logs every sexual offender and rapist in its system. So that they can be tracked and their motives watched. Fast track courts to deal with the cases of sexual assault in time bound manner.

There should be proper training of public prosecutors. The emergency room staff and treating physician should respond to the rape victim with sympathy and concern. The doctor must demonstrate a caring approach and a positive attitude, as well as understand the additional stress experienced when meeting with the police and various medical personnel.

Victims of sexual assault are apt to suffer from depression and suicidal thoughts and attempts – even months after the attack. One of the tasks of recovery is empowerment to move ahead in life and come away from the experience with a renewed sense of value for herself and a heightened sense of self and purpose for her life. With this in mind, every attempt should be made to encourage crisis intervention with trained rape crisis counselors and social workers. These large numbers in due time will be the cause of a rise in crime again!

Therefore, the need of the hour is to ensure that the rehabilitation of victims and their immediate kin be done with utmost care and sensitivity and support in both medical and psychological terms. Harrendorf, M. Heiskanen, S. Joshi is a strong advocate of a modern, strong and vibrant India. Since early days he has been advocating India becoming a nuclear power. He championed the cause of the downtrodden and was arrested several times as Jan Sangh leader, mobilising public opinion and leading agitations.

Joshi’s commitment to Swadeshi and his deep understanding of economics and WTO issues gave a refreshing dimension to India’s approach to the Patents regime. This movement largely helped the country in designing its approach to WTO, and also in educating the Indian public on meeting the challenges from the developed world.

He is widely acclaimed as the Scholar Politician as also a practicing scientist as a political campaigner. Perhaps his encounter with science began as part of a large social mission. To make science an education stimuli, to refashion the tools of literacy drive, above all a medium to lift the living standards of our people. The present paper attempts to analyze the personality and thoughts of Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi.

It has been shown that today, he has come to epitomize the resurgent India’s yearning for self-assertion. He is an ardent advocate of a non-exploitive, egalitarian world order. Introduction Dr. Joshi was born on January 5, Joshi had his early education at Hindu High School, Chandpur and completed his higher education from Meerut College and Allahabad University where he was inspired by some of his teachers who used to encourage students for supporting freedom movement.

Tilak’s Gita Rahasya had a tremendous influence on him. Rajendra Singh played a major role in shaping the young Murli Manohar’s political thinking. Specializing in Spectroscopy, he was awarded Ph. D by the Allahabad University. Writings of Vivekananda and Aurobindo had a strong influence on his ideology. Even during his over four decades of political career, Dr. Joshi pursued his academic life at Allahabad University.

He inspired and guided scores of students to take up science research before he retired as Professor and Head of the Physics Department. This was his second stint as a Cabinet Minister. He championed the cause of the downtrodden and was arrested several times as Jan Sangh leader, mobilizing public opinion and leading agitations. A dimension of Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi : A Personality and Thought 47 knowledge, and of the alternative possibilities of social reconstruction. This vision is infused by a profound love of India and of humanity and his ardent aspiration to be infused by the very soul of Mother India so as to proclaim to the world that if India rises, it is not for itself but for the sake of the whole world.

Through the universality of India, he embraces the entire humanity with honest sense of brotherhood. Joshi is essentially a teacher, and he practice what he preaches.

A transmitter of knowledge, be continues to learn with ever-fresh eyes and with a spirit of youthfulness. He strives constantly to arrive at clearer perceptions and clearer ideation; he endeavours to chisel his formulations and he remains indefatigable even when he is required to repeat in order that his communication is received with utmost clarity and understanding.

Professionally, he is an eminent physicist, but as a human personality, he is interdisciplinary. In his methodology he is highly rationalistic, even through his essential method of understanding is intuitive and experiential. He is basically a philosopher and a visionary; he is at the same time rooted in the physical realities and is keen to apply his vision for practical effectuation.

He is a practical idealist. Joshi has loved India intensely. He respects the Indian tradition, and its spirituality, its intellectuality, its inexhaustible vitality and its constant effort to unite the two poles of existence, spiritual and material. But he is not blinded by tradition; he wants to extract from the tradition that is living, and all that will help the progressive march of India and the world; he wants to discard all that is distorted or prevented in the course of time, all that is unjust and all that is fossilized.

He is an ardent advocate of freedom. He loves Indian culture because that culture has constantly endeavoured to realize freedom and wants freedom from human limitations so that humanity can be freed from one-sidedness in order to become wide and comprehensive and even integral.

Integral humanism summaries Dr. Joshi is acutely aware of the crisis through which India is passing today. In his analysis of that crisis he finds the root of the malady in the dogmas of religion and of materialism, and passing beyond these dogmas, he visualizes the possibility of a synthesis of science and spirituality.

He is in search of unity of religions in a formula that can overcome exclusivism. In his intimate conversations on the subject, one finds unmistakably in him, a Universalist who genuinely believes and practices the perennial Indian idea that the entire world is one single family, vasdhaiva kutumbakam. Joshi has written extensively; and his writings relate not only to his own special fields of Physics but also to the history of India, contemporary problem of India and the world, and to the problems of reconstruction.

His two books, Vikalpa and Prajna Pravaha, particularly strike one. As we study these two books, we become filled with admiration for his insights into the roots of Indian culture and his capacity to related these insights with contemporary problems and his deep reflections on the new directions that must be taken by India and humanity in order to resolve the maladies of our contemporary crisis.

His analysis of contemporary economic and political situations is both penetrating and comprehensive. His analysis of the integral thought of Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya brings out the uniqueness of his political thought and shows how thought has deeper roots in his comprehensive understanding of Indian thought which looks upon the individual and the society in the context of the composite elements of the physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual principles.

He also expounds how, in the philosophy of integral humanism, the individual and the society are not products of machine but that machines are only the instruments of living and developing entities behind which the force of spiritual consciousness is the ultimate driving force. The thought that he derives for social and political reconstruction from integral humanism is that there should be no exploitation —political, economic, cultural or spiritual.

He underlines that our highest duty is to constantly endeavour toi establish a society in which there is no exploitation. A society in which science and technology are so employed that they are value-oriented and respect the sacredness of nature, and alongside develop instruments by which Mother Nature can nourish humanity but would not be able to violate and drive away the nourishing powers of her resources.

Murli Manohar Joshi : A Personality and Thought 49 The important message of his writings is evident in his quest for a valid practicable alternative. In this quest, he studies the contemporary rush for markets, he analyzes the uncontrolled pursuit of mechanization and over-mechanization, he studies facts and figures of the world economic scenario, of the Gross National Product, of rich countries becoming richer and poor countries becoming poorer, of the uncontrolled pollution which has a global adverse effects.

He finds that there is no solution in the capitalistic path of development nor in the communistic path of public enterprise that leads to centralization. The issue is, as he points out, to choose between three paths which are presented to the contemporary world: the first is the path of unlimited production and consumption; the second is the path of control and production and consumption by means of mechanistic devices; and the third is the path of control over production and consumption through self-discipline.

The first path, he concludes, is the path of total ruin; the second path does not give any room to the creativity of human power of imagination and to the powers of the soul, which are applied in the walks of life. It is the third alternative that he proposes, since it is on that road that machines will remain instruments of the human masters instead of the machines becoming the masters of the human being.

Elaborating this third path, Dr. Joshi expounds his philosophy of economics, politics and history as also of science and technology, and proposes the philosophy of integral humanism as the philosophy of the alternative that humanity must choose, if it wants orderly transition from growth to global equilibrium.

In his book Prajna Pravaha, Dr. Joshi expounds his spirit of radicalism and referring to the great figures of Indian tradition —Astavakar and Naciketas, he illustrates the radical spirit of revolt against traditionalism that becomes devoid of the force of truth and justice and honesty.

He presents these two great figures as archetypes of the spirit that we find in Indian and world history in the examples of Buddha, Mahavira, Socrates, Christ, Sankaracharya, Galileo and many others of the contemporary times who have dared to reject traditional ignorance and traditional superstition.

After narrating the secret story of Naciketas, Dr. Joshi, during this narration, cries out to the young people that the freedom attained by the country is still incomplete. Millions oif Indians are still suffering the agony of untouchability and deprivation.

This pain is not less bitter than the pain of slavery. Come, let us show that the present condition is a result of a skilful device through which only a few can attain happiness and enjoyment while many must remain deprived and ignored.

Exploitation has been made into tradition in which all doors of deliverance get slowly closed. This also true of the trade that has begun to develop at the global level, and realize that without blowing it up there is no possibility of creating the free being.

Wake up, Naciketas, wake up; give to the world the message of a new life. Show to the world that this device by which millions remain hungry, naked, uneducated and diseased can be altered and replaced. Joshi is a profound educationist, an eminent scientist and an ardent advocate of integration and of the synthesis of science and spirituality. Throughout his life he has endeavoured to transmit to the youth of the country the noblest of thoughts and verities of scientific knowledge and the message that emerges from the research that is being conducted at the frontiers of knowledge.

He finds in this message a powerful trend of refutation of the mechanistic interpretation of the universe and dualistic approach that divides sharply the world of Matter and the world of Mind.

He finds that Cartesian dualism and Newtonian mechanistic assumptions cannot be upheld any more that a new pictured of the world is emerging in the light of Quantum Mechanics. In one of the addresses, Dr. Bell, and others, have brought to light such a new aspect of reality that it is no more possible to hold the mechanistic view of the universe and to advocate fragmentary view of the Reality.

Joshi feels that we are now at a stage where separative knowledge is required to give way to the knowledge by identity and by comprehensive integrity. It is here that he finds modern knowledge moving rapidly towards the same conclusion to which the Upanishads had arrived at through the methodology of knowledge by intuition, as a result of which it was affirmed that true spirituality is a spirituality of knowledge, possessing which, universal knowledge become possible.

He often refers to the great Indian scientist, Jagdish Chandra Bose, since a hundred years ago, the altter had demonstrated in England the astonishing results of his successful experiments in which the distinction between the living and the non-living had disappeared.

Joshi also refers to the Darwinian Theory of Evolution, which has therefore given rise to the great system of evolutionists who have seen the phenomena of mutation of continuum of Matter, Life and Mind.

He points out that competent philosophers like Alexander, Whitehead and Chardin have perceived the possibilities of the birth of radically new levels of consciousness, which would surpass the limitations of the human mind. Instructively, Dr. Joshi detects here the convergence of the modern findings and the ancient discoveries of Bhrigu. According to Dr. Joshi, the theme of the present day is the theme of consciousness, and both science and spirituality and getting bridged through the compelling discoveries in the realm of consciousness.

Pointing out that neither the hypothesis of determinism nor that of fortuitous chance have been found to have any obligatory force. He refers to the fact that the mind has emerged in the evolutionary process which betrays the qualities of order and sense of unity, which are alien to the very idea of chance, and, besides, the mind has a quality of freedom, which is alien to the idea of determinism. Referring to the data in respect of consciousness, he points out that consciousness cannot be confined merely to the limited operations of the human mind.

Joshi goes further and points out hat under the pressure of new discoveries, the barriers that have been refusing so far to investigate supra-physical phenomena, can now be broken.

He argues that humanity has now become ready for a larger statement of ever-developing inquiry, which promises us the development of the true foundation of the synthesis and even of identity of science and spirituality. The only problem that stands sharply against this great possibility, according to Dr.

Joshi, is the continuing hold of dogmatism —dogmatism that prevents the questioning of the existence of the Spirit as also the dogmatism that bids us to remain confined to the realm of Matter and to the limitation the binds us to the exclusive and rigid hold of the physical sense.

Both these dogmas, he points out, lie at the root of the conflict that is alleged to exist between science and spirituality. He finds that science in certain situations is so restricted and so rigidly held in prison of prejudgment that it could not be reconciled with spirituality.

We have to see clearly that science need not necessarily by conceived within the limits of materialism. We can, I think, clearly demonstrate the materialism is the dogmatism, which science at a certain stage of its development has tended to develop as its outer shell; but spirituality, too, has tended to develop at a certain stage of its development, religion or religionism and its dogmatism.

There is really no quarrel between science and spirituality; quarrel is only between materialism and religionism, and when both of them are freed from their respective dogmas, we shall see with spontaneous ease, reconciliation between science and spirituality.

Joshi has advanced that theme of yoga. He points out that yoga is not a religion because it can be pursued without recourse to any dogmas, rituals or ceremonies. Taking that cue from Swami Vivekananda, he points out that yoga can be practiced as a scientific experiment without any prior belief in its efficacy, as a testing ground to examine ranges of consciousness that emerge by the practice of the method of concentration, and psychological introspection and purification.

Murli Manohar Joshi : A Personality and Thought 53 world will remain a constant scene of tyranny and war. He concludes that at the highest borders of science and yoga a new form of science may develop which will have no barriers and which will integrate all universal domains of existence. He advocates the methods of exploration nor only in the domain of the knowledge of facts but also in the domain of values.

He is an ardent advocate of value-oriented education. He derives his inspiration from the ancient system that was prevalent in India where four elements, vit. There was also an emphasis on the development of the study of knowledge of the self by which consciousness can become universal and the sense of oneness and integrity can by nourished.

Finally, he also wishes to implement the great message of education that had come to be formulated during the freedom struggle. Joshi is fully aware of the implications of the great task that lies ahead of us in education so that the evils of the Macaulayan system are removed and the benefits of a true national system of integral education are established.

In this context, one of the important question he has raised is that of the study of Indian history. Moreover, as he rightly pointed out, it is not a question of mere facts of Indian history, but of the vision that takes into account the vastness of the universe and the true purpose of life that has been sought after throughout the ages. It may be said that Dr.

Joshi has pursued these high aims with remarkable consistency and acute sense of commitment. He wants the educational vision of the pioneers of freedom movement to be implemented in actual and practical terms. He wants students to be well founded in the past of India and yet free from the dogmas of the past so that they can embrace modern knowledge comprehensively and can move towards the future that can work out a new synthesis of the old and the new, of the East and of the West.

Conclusion As we study Dr. Joshi seriously, we find that he emerges as an illumined leader endowed with great and humane qualities of the heart, mind and spirit. His greatness consists in the fact that he does not seek greatness but wants the greatness of India to be understood and appreciated and wants the India of the future to be even greater than what is was in the past.

He is a karmayogi who is constantly engaged in works without seeking enjoyment of fruits. He wants his work and their fruits to be offered to the great aim of loka sangraph, solidarity and unity of humankind. It is fortunate that India has amongst its leaders a karmayogi such as we have in Dr. Today, Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi has come to epitomize the resurgent India’s yearning for self-assertion.

One is struck by the basic continuity and consistency of Dr. Joshi’s approach to politics and to life over the past half century. It is inspired by the desire to wipe a tear from every eye and bring a smile on every face. His deep commitment to the Indian values only makes him more concerned for the weak and deprived. He has stood for combining effective leadership with broad participation to achieve a radical transformation or society.

This astute blend of charisma and clear sense of history has made Joshi a darling of the masses. Being a part of society it is necessary to him to aware with everything which is happening in the society.

Mass media is a tremendous sources of information for individual as well as society. Mass media like television can demonstrate and show how things work. The speed of media has resulted in bringing people across the world closer.

Today by media people become active, aware about the society etc. This paper discuss the role and effect of media on society.

Introduction Man is a social animal, he cannot live in insolation, so his actions affect not only him but society. Society guides and controls their behaviour in many ways. Society liberates and limits the activities of men. Society is responsible for fulfillment of life of every individual. Men in modern societies are also experiencing various problems and his behaviour gets affected by many things, media is one of them.

Media includes every broadcasting and narrow casting medium such as news papers, magazines, fax, T. Media is the plural of medium and can take a plural or singular Verb, depending on the sense intended.

Media are the Vehicles or Channels which are used to convey information, entertainment, news, education etc. Media sites have taken over our lives. But now, media occupy a high proportion of our leisure time, people spend on average, 25 hours per week watching television, and they also find time for radio, magazines, cinema etc. For children it has become a great source of entertainment.

Need and Importance of Study Media is an important aspect of study as it is contemporary and always changing. The media as a whole effects every single person in some way or another. It is important to study the media because without understanding the complex links between texts, audiences and producers then the audience can be easily influenced. To understand the world portrayed through the media to the audience we think is an important aspect to learn as understanding how the media influences people and effects real life can show you not to believe everything you read for instance.

Although there are many reasons to study about media : 8 Media define for us our own place in the world. The Socio-Economic Effects of Media 57 3.

Sociological Theories of Communication The sociological approach to communication theory is based on assumption that there exists a definite relationship between mass communication and social change. Some of the relevant theories which are going to be discussed here are : 3. It is based on the assumption that mass media have subtle effects on audiences who unknowingly absorb the dominant symbols, images, and messages of media.

Heavy viewers are exposed to more violence and therefore are affected by the Mean World Syndrome, the belief that the world is a far worse and dangerous place then it actually is. Cultivation theorists posit that television viewing can have long-term effects that gradually affect the audience. Their primary focus falls on the effects of viewing in the attitudes of the viewer as opposed to created behavior.

It is one of the most widely used theories in mass communication. This theory was developed in the s by psychologist Albert Bandura, and it added a whole new dimension in understanding human behavior and its influences. Before social learning theory, psychologists believed human behavior was strictly a product of conditioning, or direct reinforcement. According to this theory, the media are active but subtle educators in teaching readers, viewers, listeners about the world.

An important component of this theory is that it explains how people can learn from observations alone. Bandura warned that “children and adults acquire attitudes, emotional responses, and new styles of conduct through filmed and televised modelling”.

Bandura’s warning struck a responsive chord in parents and educators who feared that escalating violence on TV would transform children into bullies. Agenda setting is the creation of public awareness and concern of salient issues by the news media.

The term was coined by Maxwell McCombs and Donald L Shaw in the context of election campaign where the politicians seek to convince the voters about the party’s most important issues.

This theory tries to describe and explain as how stories are selected : a Packaged and presented a process known as Gatekeeping, b by resulting agenda and c how this agenda affect what people think about the relative importance of the issue presented.

McCombs and Shaw concluded that the mass media exerted a significant influence on what voters considered to be the major issues of the campaign. This theory is based on a field where pain is in one end and pleasures the other. Work favours pain and play favours pleasure. Play is self-contained and people do it to get satisfaction. But work has to be done to increase productivity. People often are influenced by the media in a positive and negative way.

The media greatly influences the needs of the audiences and also the gratification the media provide them. In play theory the media is mainly used to get pleasure out of its usage than as the medium of information and education.

Even news papers, says Stephenson are read for pleasure rather than information or enlightenment. He sees media as buffer against conditions which would otherwise be anxiety producing. The uses of the mass media are dependent on the perception, selectivity, and previously held values, beliefs and interests of the people.

It is the theory which explains of how people use media for their need and gratification. In other words we can say this theory states what people do with media rather than what media does to people. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the study of media are : 1. To know a bit about the role of mass media in a democracy. To know about the various areas where media can play important role. To offer valuable suggestions for the effective functioning of media on society.

Hypothesis Main objective of the study of the hypothesis is that in how way media affects the society or economy-in a positive way or negative. Methodology The Proposal which we have selected has a great importance because the main aim of this study is to examine the effect of mass media is an individual life and in society.

In this proposal observation method is used because we are presenting what we have observed about media in the society. Secondary data is used for collection of matter by magazines, Books, Newspapers to fulfill our objectives.

Socio-Economic Effects of Media 7. There is no doubt that there are many reasons to love social media. Some reasons are following : 7. We are living in a time, where the world is open to us. We can also share elements of our life, from what we enjoy to photos of ourselves and those in our lives.

When we go to any part of the world, we see the same products such as soft drinks, television, refrigerator etc and the same type of advertisements. Similarly the world wide web and internet have brought people and countries much closer. It is the best tool to spread awareness in the modern society either it be political, social or economic and giving us latest sight about what is happening in our world, making us aware about what our rights, creating awareness against evils in our society, what new happening around us, exposing corrupt politicians and hardcore criminals by sting operations.

There is a correlation between media and society to share them self about the past, present and future event on need base method of the society. What this new study reveals is that these same positive behaviour signals are also powerful in our online networks, and can be narnessed for the social good. This approach could be applied not only to encourage exercise, but also to promote vaccinations, medication compliance and preventative care.

The Socio-Economic Effects of Media 61 7. Without advertising, the public will not know about various products and services which are available in the market as well as their prices. Economy actors need accurate and timely information to allocate resources efficiently. Investors and other groups increasing value and demand a governance monitoring role from the media. A free and independent press can provide information and monitoring to the economic policy development process leading to more effective economic policies.

It can also reduce political risk and increase good governance conditions that are important for robust economic development. The students who are not good at studies, use social networking sites, whole day teacher can help them by teaching them a topic everyday so that they are able to know the concept of the chapter or lesson. Social media makes students, shine with knowledge and it pays major role in the lives of people.

The programs are produced by those who have no time and interest to interact with the audience. The routine broadcasts meant for farmers viewed as fatalists by producers and announcers do not always succeed in creating positive response among farmers, whose needs are rarely studied before preparing the bulletins. At times, the top-down structure of media system seems to contribute to the development of culture of silence, particularly in States ruled by dictators, instead of supporting extension work in rural areas.

It is important to know that the Holy Quran was revealed to the prophet Muhammad PBS through communication, and also he propagated to the followers through communication, the sahaba propagated to the followers call Tabbin through communication, generation to generation is through communication be oral and writing. With such, we can say that Quran is a communication from Allah to mankind.

The Quran is a form of communication that is neither prose, nor poetry. The Quran is a communication miracle because through it involves words and verses, no one could ever match in style. The inimitability of the Quranic style was well described by Al-Walid Ibnu al-Mughirah who said: there is sweetness in its Quean beginning, and beauty in it end and it resembles no human discourse. In the modern democracies elections can easily be reached by the new, indirect mobilization techniques of the press and electronic media.

The mobilization for electoral participation does not necessarily require the earlier organizational techniques, the mass party strategy. This strategy has almost disappeared with the appearance of catch all parties. As consequences of the decrease in the voting on the basis of party identification, the media plays a central role in influencing public opinion.

Many countries today have considered radio and television as a media to promote their business such as gamboling, music, movies. Today many people in the society are now spending most of their time with entertainment facilities even when they are at work.

Example, Vehicle drivers are listening to their fm radio music while driving their cars. Children are watching toy movies and English dramas everyday at home. We can see that there are various positive role of media which can be acceptable in the society. They are 7. The popularity of violent and abusive rap song amongst teenagers can be traced to media hype.

The exposure to violence, abuse, sex and other unhealthy habits has a major role in the out burst of unfortunate incidents where children have got extremely violent and out of control.

The negative things the celebrities do are often talked about. The controversies in the lives of the celebrities are often highlighted by the media. This leads to a blind imitation of what appears in the news. The negative effects of media in particular on children are manifested in terms of their changing mental set up and the declining quality of their life style.

Children, who should invest their time in reading good books, studing, playing, outdoors, exercising and engaging is social activities, today spend their evenings glued to the television. Social media is one of the most used types of websites by teenagers.

In fact, according to a report by the Washington Post, nine out of 10 teen facebook users have reported they have witnessed bullying on this social media site.

Now, stories of bad customer service and disappointing products can run quickly through social media network. It has become more difficult for companies to contain its negative publicity. Results There are Various role of mass media which can be acceptable in the society. Today by media people become more active, aware about the society etc comparatively ancient time. Media are the Vehicle on channels which are used to convey information, entertainment, news, education etc. We can see various aspects of mass media to bring certain change in individual and in society as— 1.

Media provide news and information to the people, which they required. Media can entertain people. By media people can also get information related to education and can educate without going anywhere. Media can help to brought people of the world closer to each other. Media can change people attitudes and habits.

The Socio-Economic Effects of Media 65 6. Media can helps in social matter as well as political matter. Media can bring in positive social change. Median increases violence in our society. Media is means of bad behaviour and bad mental health of youths. Conclusions In this paper we have discussed various positive and negative impacts that today media has on society. In positive aspect mass media is a tremendous sources of information for individual as well as society.

Today media plays very important role in society. By giving the necessary information and sometimes skill media helps to change people attitudes and habits. Mass media is one of the best means of reaction, Radio, television, internet are the best means of entertainment and also informative.

Social media keeps us up to date with the happenings around the world. On the other hand, In negative aspect we find that major chunk of youth is using social media network more than 5 hours a day.

Resulting in decreasing their general health in general and mental health in particular. Our youth is being mature before their age of maturity. Hollywood is also give bad effect on our youth. We find that media is playing both constructive as well as distructive roles.

On other hand it has lots of advantages with lots of disadvantages. Suggestions The effect of social media have been somewhat balanced to be honest. There are many good things about it and many bad things. We should follow some suggestion to avoid its bad effects : 8 Block people who distract you. Blumler J. Chaudhary, R. Chitra, P. Gerbner, G.

McCombs, M. Singh, A. Thompson, J. Planning offered the only way to achieve a rapid and balanced growth keeping the national priorities in mind. The state was now expected to play an active part in economic and social development. Some of the objectives outlined in these plans were maximization of national income, rapid industrialization, providing full employment and most importantly achieving self-sufficiency.

The central purpose identified with the process of development was to raise the standard of living and opening out more opportunities to people. The present paper aims to analyze planning and development in Jhangirabad Block of Bulandshahr District in Uttar Pradesh. It has been shown that in spite of the fact that bureaucracy has tried to achieve developmental goals yet many impediment are pulling it back, such as undue interference of political leadership, corruption, paucity of resources, inactivity and over all will power.

This needs to be removed by effective training so that bureaucracy may discharge its duty effectively. Introduction If any event of considerable significance on the horizon of the international politics seems to be innumerated, it would be the independence of a number of Afro-Asian countries from the colonial tutelage. Though , these countries got freed but they were poor in resources, skilled men power, technological knowledge and therefore were not in a position to fulfill the aspirations of their people.

In such situation they had two alternatives either to go to developed countries for aid and assistance or to gear up their own resources for a planned development. A few of these countries opted for the second option ad tried to evolve their own strategy of development. India was one of them Though India got a steel frame bureaucracy in legacy but well in the consonance with colonial values, and procedures, this bureaucracy was not capable in responding to the development administrative structure which is based on peoples participation at all levels of administration.

However ,a broad observation of role and function of bureaucracy in different environment indicate that if it is highly dynamic, effective and result oriented in the urban set up it is reverse in rural settings. Obviously, if it could be made considerably effective in the developing and backward region, the socio-economic transformation and development can not be stopped.

With this broad assertion in mind, the present study has been taken up in Bulandshahr district of western Uttar Pradesh. The Present Study With the advent of scientific and industrial development in the west a number of problems cropped up.

The most significant of them was channelization of the fruit of development to the masses in rational way. In post second war period when numerous countries of the third world became free of colonial dominance and aspired for development neither they have adequate technological skill nor sufficient infrastructure and raw material for achieving the developmental goals. Yet the leadership of such countries assured the masses of providing all that its western counterpart provided to the people.

They also tried to train their bureaucracies in the legal and rational frame. It is in this perspective, this study has been taken in a comparatively backward region of Jhangirabad of Bulandshahr district of Uttar Pradesh. Planning and Development : A Case Study of Jhangirabad Block 69 The different programmes identified in the national perspective have been implemented vigorously.

It is the bureaucracy which is responsible for the implementation of different programmes. But on the other side for effective implementation of the policies and programmes active cooperation of the masses is required. We have samples from purposive sampling method, members of the cross section of society that includes students, teachers, professionals, farmers ,businessman and leaders.

Universe of Study Jahangirabad is a small town, geographically located at 28N25 78E Jahangirabad lies under Anupshahr tahisil of Bulandshahr district. It has a known history of more than of years. It is being said that in the early phase of 17th century prince Jhahanigir visited this place for some hunting purpose. One of the chieftain Anuprai save the life of Jhahangir and therefore, got this town created.

Anuprai was also the creator of Anupshahr town. Jahangirabad and anupshahr as per old testament have 84 villages each in its jurisdiction. Since Jahangirabad was a part of Anupshahr therefore, it witnessed the rise and fall along with the town of Anupshahr. Ali Khan, etc. Jahangirabad is not a developed industrial town rather of grain market of course handicraft as its asset.

M per current records, cold records, wear house, a sugar factory are there in the name of industrialization. For this frequency separation the binary signals are orthogonal with coherent detection. Problem 6. Thus, the early-late gate synchronizer is a close approximation to the timing recovery system. Upon performing the integration over R, as in Sec.

The operation of the PLL is described in the next part. The negative sign indicates that the SNR is decreased by 0. Problem 7. We note that the capacity of the channel is zero when all transitions are equally likely i. Clearly, the above channel cannot support this transmission rate. We have assumed that the output space of both channels has been augmented by adding two new symbols so that the size of the matrices Q, Q1 and Q2 is the same.

The transition probabilities to these newly added output symbols is equal to zero. If we start at the input labeled 0, then the output will be 0. This means that we can achieve better results compared to the memoryless case at a given rate. In other words the distortion at a given rate for a source with memory is less than the distortion for a comparable source with memory.

Since there are n slots over which we transmit the message signals, the dimensionality of the signal space is upper bounded by 2n. Also, the probability of error for the BSC is p, where p is the error rate for the modulation method employed. Both these conclusions agree with the well-known results on the performance of these schemes, as given by their error probabilities given in Chapter 5.

This can be also obtained by generating all 8 codewords for this code and checking their minimum weight. Problem 8. The next candidate value of n is Then, we will erroneously select a codeword Cm of! Solid lines indicate an input equal to 0, whereas dotted lines correspond to an input equal to 1. The length of the received sequence y is The numbers on the nodes denote the metric Hamming distance of the survivor paths the non-survivor paths are shown with an X. In the case of a tie of two merging paths at a node, we have purged the upper path.

It is assumed that the input sequence is padded by two zeros, so that the actual length of the information sequence is 5. The numbers on the nodes indicate the Hamming distance of the survivor paths. The deleted branches have been marked with an X. In the case of a tie we deleted the upper branch.

The survivor path at the end of the decoding is denoted by a thick line. The branches that are dropped by the Viterbi algorithm have been marked with an X.

In the case of a tie of two merging paths, we delete the upper path. The channel is binary symmetric and the metric for Viterbi decoding is the Hamming distance. If the next bit is 1, the output is again 00 and the new state is Then if the next bit is a zero, the output is again 00 and the new state is , which is the same state that we started with.

Hence, we have a closed path in the state diagram which yields an output that is identical to the output of the all-zero path, but which results from the input sequence Each subset has eight signal points, one for each of the 3-tuples from the uncoded bits.

Since, each element of the vector yi can take two values, the cardinality of the set Y is 2n. Problem 9. Hence, the Gaussian shaped pulse requires more bandwidth than the pulse having the raised cosine spectrum.

Proceeding with adding 1 , 2 , 3 we arrive at the desired result. We have also plotted the power spectrum of the baseband in-phase I component of the signal. We know that the product of an even function times and even function has even symmetry, while the product of even times odd has odd symmetry.

Hence, the lowpass equivalent bandwidth will extend from -2 to 2 KHz. Hence, the bit rate is bps, and the two FSK signals are orthogonal. In this case we need four frequencies with separation of T1 between adjacent frequencies.

Since each symbol carries 3 bits of information, the bit rate is bps. The carrier frequency fc is set to Hz, which is the mid-frequency of the frequency band that the bandpass channel occupies.

The detector is a simple threshold device that decides if a binary 1 or 0 was transmitted depending on the sign of the input samples. This property of the analytic functions is also referred as the theorem of isolated zeros. Data seq. If this is not the case, then the precoded symbols pn cannot be determined uniquely from the data sequence dn. The values of the vertical axis indicate that C f can be considered constant for frequencies up to Hz.

As it is observed, the two codes have exactly the same capacity. P describes a runlength constrained code, that forbids any sequence containing a run of more than three adjacent symbols of the same kind. Thus, the above result is the average probability of error. Problem Since there is postcursor ISI, we delay the received signal, used by the ML decoder to form the metrics, by one sample.

Two branches originate from each state. The labels of the branches indicate the output of the partial response system. Hence, 16 probabilities must be computed at each stage of the Viterbi algorithm.

For further details for the use of a pseudo-random periodic sequence to perform equalization we refer to the paper by Qureshi However, this second case is rarely used in practice. For an analysis of the case where the real and imaginary parts of the information sequence do not have the same average energy, we refer the interested reader to the paper by Chow et al. There are 15 information bits conveyed by each code word, i.

Note that in the presence of a strong jammer, the probability p is large, i. We have, W 6. Hence, the convolutional code is in cascade with the repetition code. Now, we use the characteristic function for the sum of the squares of two Gaussian random variables which is given by 2. This computational method yields results that are reasonably close to the results given by Martin and McAdam and which are illustrated in Fig.

At very high rates, a large q implies a large SNR loss. The demodulator may use square-law combining. A subcarrier separation of 1 Hz is maintained to achieve independent fading of subcarriers carrying the same information. Hence, we employ a RAKE receiver with at least 5 taps. Therefore, we cannot proceed any further. Hence, the minimum chip rate is chips per second. On the other hand, we saw that the total normalized capacity Cn is constant, in- dependent of the number of users K.

Hence, the distribution of the bandwidth according to the SNR of each user, produces the maximum achievable rate. Hence, the distribution of the time that each user transmits according to the respective SNR produces the maximum achievable rate.

 
 

 

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If we average over the random phases, these terms drop out. Problem 5. It is straightforward to see that the information sequence In is simply the phase of the lowpass signal, i.

The last form is indeed the original form of the correlation metrics C r, sm. Thus, 0. Since U1 , U2 are independent, it is straightforward to prove that W1 , W2 are independent, too. This is because there are fully connected graphs consisted of three points. To see this consider an equilateral triangle with vertices A, B and C. Thus the required signal to noise ratio is 5 dB less when the additive noise is Gaussian.

Hence, the message m1 is more vulnerable to errors. The reason for that is that it has both threshold lines close to it, while the other two signals have one of the their threshold lines further away. We can easily verify that each two of the combined states, which were obtained in this problem, give one terminal phase state. Hence, the error probability is the probability of the union of the event E1 that another correlation metric is greater in absolute value and the event E2 that the signal correlation metric has the wrong sign.

From this point, following the exact same steps as in Problem 5. The integral involving the Bessel function cannot be evaluated in closed form. The covariances are e. Note 0, o.

For this frequency separation the binary signals are orthogonal with coherent detection. Problem 6. Thus, the early-late gate synchronizer is a close approximation to the timing recovery system. Upon performing the integration over R, as in Sec. The operation of the PLL is described in the next part. The negative sign indicates that the SNR is decreased by 0. Problem 7. We note that the capacity of the channel is zero when all transitions are equally likely i.

Clearly, the above channel cannot support this transmission rate. We have assumed that the output space of both channels has been augmented by adding two new symbols so that the size of the matrices Q, Q1 and Q2 is the same. The transition probabilities to these newly added output symbols is equal to zero. If we start at the input labeled 0, then the output will be 0. This means that we can achieve better results compared to the memoryless case at a given rate.

In other words the distortion at a given rate for a source with memory is less than the distortion for a comparable source with memory.

Since there are n slots over which we transmit the message signals, the dimensionality of the signal space is upper bounded by 2n.

Also, the probability of error for the BSC is p, where p is the error rate for the modulation method employed. Both these conclusions agree with the well-known results on the performance of these schemes, as given by their error probabilities given in Chapter 5. This can be also obtained by generating all 8 codewords for this code and checking their minimum weight.

Problem 8. The next candidate value of n is Then, we will erroneously select a codeword Cm of! Solid lines indicate an input equal to 0, whereas dotted lines correspond to an input equal to 1.

The length of the received sequence y is The numbers on the nodes denote the metric Hamming distance of the survivor paths the non-survivor paths are shown with an X.

In the case of a tie of two merging paths at a node, we have purged the upper path. It is assumed that the input sequence is padded by two zeros, so that the actual length of the information sequence is 5. The numbers on the nodes indicate the Hamming distance of the survivor paths. The deleted branches have been marked with an X. In the case of a tie we deleted the upper branch. The survivor path at the end of the decoding is denoted by a thick line. The branches that are dropped by the Viterbi algorithm have been marked with an X.

In the case of a tie of two merging paths, we delete the upper path. The channel is binary symmetric and the metric for Viterbi decoding is the Hamming distance. If the next bit is 1, the output is again 00 and the new state is Then if the next bit is a zero, the output is again 00 and the new state is , which is the same state that we started with. Hence, we have a closed path in the state diagram which yields an output that is identical to the output of the all-zero path, but which results from the input sequence Each subset has eight signal points, one for each of the 3-tuples from the uncoded bits.

Since, each element of the vector yi can take two values, the cardinality of the set Y is 2n. Problem 9. Hence, the Gaussian shaped pulse requires more bandwidth than the pulse having the raised cosine spectrum. Proceeding with adding 1 , 2 , 3 we arrive at the desired result. We have also plotted the power spectrum of the baseband in-phase I component of the signal.

We know that the product of an even function times and even function has even symmetry, while the product of even times odd has odd symmetry. Hence, the lowpass equivalent bandwidth will extend from -2 to 2 KHz. Hence, the bit rate is bps, and the two FSK signals are orthogonal. In this case we need four frequencies with separation of T1 between adjacent frequencies. Since each symbol carries 3 bits of information, the bit rate is bps. The carrier frequency fc is set to Hz, which is the mid-frequency of the frequency band that the bandpass channel occupies.

The detector is a simple threshold device that decides if a binary 1 or 0 was transmitted depending on the sign of the input samples. This property of the analytic functions is also referred as the theorem of isolated zeros. Data seq. If this is not the case, then the precoded symbols pn cannot be determined uniquely from the data sequence dn.

The values of the vertical axis indicate that C f can be considered constant for frequencies up to Hz. As it is observed, the two codes have exactly the same capacity. P describes a runlength constrained code, that forbids any sequence containing a run of more than three adjacent symbols of the same kind. Thus, the above result is the average probability of error.

Problem Since there is postcursor ISI, we delay the received signal, used by the ML decoder to form the metrics, by one sample. Two branches originate from each state. The labels of the branches indicate the output of the partial response system. Hence, 16 probabilities must be computed at each stage of the Viterbi algorithm. For further details for the use of a pseudo-random periodic sequence to perform equalization we refer to the paper by Qureshi DOI: It was used to classify what attributes contribute to the perceived motion quality of stroboscopic reproductions.

Using knowledge from this and other past frame rate research and psychophysics, a comprehensive experiment was setup to see if a just noticeable difference JND could be found for changes… Expand. View via Publisher. Save to Library Save. Create Alert Alert. Share This Paper. Results Citations. Figures from this paper.

Citation Type. Has PDF. Publication Type. More Filters. A perceptual model of motion quality for rendering with adaptive refresh-rate and resolution. ACM Trans. View 1 excerpt, cites methods.

 
 

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With the high collaborative relationship among the members and the cooperation with the municipality, it can contribute to building up social capital and develop the capacity-building of community development.

It is perceived that the state supports the gathering of local groups of residents to facilitate more efficiency and effectiveness and encourage self-reliance, mutual assistance, moreover, could help in administrative purpose to facilitate more efficiency and effectiveness in providing public good and services. The authors acknowledge with appreciation Professor Tsujinaka Yutaka for the helpful suggestions and comments on this research. Not only formulate the national plan, they have a duty to monitor and evaluate the plan.

Municipal government is one type of local government in Thailand. There are three levels of municipal government, that are city nakorn , town muang , and sub-district tambon municipalities which are categorized on the basis of geographic size, and population size and density Mahakanjana, Informal interviews with some presidents of neighborhood communities in year In-depth-interviews and participatory observation, References Alagappa, M.

Kongjit, C. Frank J. Nakamura, H. Pekkanen, R. Tsujinaka, Y. Yoshihara, N. Basic Concepts Psychologists outline several 3D spatial skills, which have been proved to be important for higher level thinking skills: spatial perception ability to differentiate between horizontal and vertical , spatial visualization mental transformations, e.

Pittalis and Christou point out that factor analysis is one of the most common methods used to describe the actual structure of spatial abilities, used in order to break down the concept into factors which contribute to the spatial comprehension Pittalis and Christou, Smith , according to Lohman, argues that spatial abilities have been kept in the background with regard to measuring human intelligence and tests of spatial abilities were considered as measuring practical and mechanical abilities which are needed for certain occupations, but not as measures of abstract reasoning abilities.

Lohman argues that this is in conflict with the importance assigned to the spatial imagery in accounts of creative thinking and the correlations between spatial tests and other measures of intelligence Shepard, according to Lohman, Lohman , according to Pittalis and Christou, created a model which encompasses three major spatial ability factors: spatial visualization, spatial orientation and spatial relations.

The author was of the opinion that other factors, even though he acknowledged them, were not of such importance in comparison to the three factors he outlined in his model. He defined spatial visualization factor as the ability to understand mental movements within a 3D space and also to manipulate objects mentally. With regard to the spatial orientation in its essence it is the awareness of the relationship between two objects in space, whether the other is on the left or right side, higher or lower than the other one etc.

Spatial orientation is best tested by asking from the subject to visualise how an object would appear from a different perspective and then draw conclusions and observations from that angle. For instance in a new test devised by Kozhevnikov and Hegarty , according to Pittalis and Christou, the subjects are presented with a 2D map of a town and are asked to visualize themselves standing facing a certain direction and then making observations. Tests which test the level of development of this particular ability are time-limited.

Empirical Instruments for Spatial Skills Testing Throughout years of researching in this field, spatial abilities have been measured using four different types of tests: performance tests, paper-and-pencil tests, verbal tests, and dynamic tests on computers, whereas the performance tests have been the forerunners of all other types of tests, such as block manipulation or paper folding tasks which Binet and Simon , according to Lohman, presented to children. Paper-and-pencil spatial abilities testing mostly consisted of several different types of items and were tested on young children of approximately the same age Lohman, Among the frequently used tests for spatial ability and its different factors, we have chosen to outline four which are relevant for research in the various fields of STEM.

The subjects are graded with regard to their ability to correctly and quickly identify mirror images. This test began its use in with Roger N.

Shepard and Jacqueline Metzler, who conducted a chronometric research aiming at testing the mental rotation of 3D objects. Shepard hypothesized that this task would be executed by the participants by mentally rotating the objects and the results confirmed his hypothesis Shepard and Metzler, This test has been redrawn and modernized since its first use and has been widely used by researchers as a tool for measuring spatial abilities level. It is required of the participants to choose the correct 3D object from four offered solutions which would result from folding the given 2D form.

Hence the authors concluded that spatial ability provides information for predicting the educational-vocational tracks which the students chose themselves. One drawback of this research in this particular aspect is that the sample consisted of intellectually talented individuals Shea et al, It consisted of 36 items with 12 in each subtest. The PSVT:R is an extended version of the subtest Rotations, consists of 30 items with 13 symmetrical and 17 non-symmetrical pictures of 3D objects which are drawn in a 2D format Maeda and Yoon, Spatial Abilities and Empirical Tools used to Measure Them 21 In this test an object is shown which is then rotated in space for a certain amount.

Second objects shown and it is required of the participant to mentally rotate this second object by exactly the same amount as the first object and then choose the correct picture Sorby et al, The participant is presented with an object and a plane which should be used for cutting on the left side and then needs to choose the correct cutting outcome out of five offered solutions Sorby et al, The test itself consists of 25 problems with the maximum score of 25 points.

In the test there are two types of problems: pattern recognition problems and quantity problems. Problems falling into the first category consist of different alternatives of possible cross sections, whereas the participant can come to the right solution by recognizing the pattern of the section of the object and problems falling into the second category consist of possible solutions the cross sections of which are all similar and therefore in order to find the right solution one needs to mentally compare length, ratios and angles.

Figure-3 : A sample from the MCT test In the standard version of the test, after recognising and reviewing the constructional elements of the solid such as the vertex, edges and plane, the subject needs to recognize the relative location of the plane which will be used for cutting. The researchers tried to make the subjects make a sketch which might help them in this task and offer the proposition that if intersecting lines were added to the picture of the test solid, that it might help the subjects to come to the correct solution Tsutsumi, Differences between Test Scores 3.

Research done in by Voyer et al has shown similar results. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of spatial visualization, spatial perception and mental rotation and while spatial visualization showed significant gender differences for participants older than 18 and spatial perception for participants older than 13, mental rotation showed gender differences for all participants without regard to their age Voyer et al, , according to Monahan et al, In a research conducted by Sorby et al among the students of engineering and technology programmes where PSVT:R and MCT tests were conducted, and have been compared with results of architecture and computer science students, it has been shown that there are significant gender differences in the results.

For instance on the PSVT:R test male and 35 female students took part and the average for male was 20,51 whereas the average for females was 16, The MCT test showed a difference between male and 30 female students where average score for men was 10,24 and for women 8,53 Sorby et al, Out of participants where one third were women, the average male score on the test was 14,99 whereas the average score of women was 12, The research was conducted among students of Dublin Institute for Technology who studied civil engineering, mechanical engineering and common engineering, which results were then compared with those of students of architecture, architectural technology and computer science.

On the PSVT:R test students of computer science had highest average scores whereas the lowest average score was achieved by the civil engineering students. On the MCT test the highest score was achieved by the students of architectural technology and the lowest again by the students civil engineering Sorby et al, Conclusion 3D spatial skills which have been identified as important for higher level thinking skills are spatial perception, spatial visualisation, mental rotations, spatial relations and spatial orientation Tartre, , according to Sorby et al, The author defines spatial visualization factor as the ability to understand mental movements within a 3D space and also to manipulate objects mentally.

In this paper we have outlined four empirical tools for testing spatial skills significant for the fields of STEM. The Mental Rotation Test MRT requires subjects to compare pairs of 3D objects which are often rotated a certain angle and state if they are the same image or if one is a mirror image. The Mental Cutting Test MCT measures the ability to visualise a cross-section of an object which has been cut by an imaginary plane.

Research conducted by Sorby et al for which the authors used the PSVT:R and MCT tests also outlined differences between the scores for students of different study programmes.

The research showed that students of computer science had highest average scores whereas the lowest average score was achieved by the civil engineering students. References Gorska, R. Lohman, D. Tapsfield eds. Maeda, Y. Masters, M.

McBurney, D. Pittalis, M. Shea, D. Shepard, R. Sorby, S. Tsutsumi, E. The last decades have seen an intensive rise in such crimes towards the women of these areas. As the country develops and achieves great heights in many of its areas, it is disturbing to see that it fails to achieve basic safety and security for the females at home, workplace and in general. This paper looks into the various aspects that revolve around the heinous crime. It tries to grasp how the women are considered an object to be used and abused by many in the society.

It also attempts to study the psyche of the rapist that makes him commit such a crime. Myths surrounding rape and the causes of rape have also been touched upon. The effect it has on the victim and her family, due to the insensitivity demonstrated towards them by the society. Life after rape is difficult, as it looks into the loopholes that are prevalent in our hospitals, police stations and judiciary system.

Negligence from these departments laments at the poor state of affairs and make the victims relive the incident again and again, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems.

Reinforcement is required to focus on improving the community response to rape and the prevention of sexual assault. Executive, legislative and social reforms have also been suggested to tackle and reduce such incidents. Yet in this age of escalating feminism and focus on equality and human rights, it is difficult to understand that women in India still continue to face atrocities such as rape, acid throwing, dowry killings, and the forced prostitution of young girls.

Inscriptions like Mahabharata and Ramayana are an evidence of how influential women were in the rise and fall of kingdoms and their mighty rulers. In Mahabharata the humiliation of Draupadi wife of Pandavs by the Kauravas led to their fall. Similarly, Raavan had to face defeat and death, and his kingdom, Lanka burnt down to ashes when he abducted Sita, the queen of Ayodhya.

Many women came forward and fought to free India from the British rule. But, during the partition of India, some , women were claimed to have been kidnapped and brutally raped. Delhi recorded the highest number of rape cases in the country in at 1,, more than double the number in This was followed by cases in Mumbai, cases in Jaipur and cases in Pune in According to indiatoday.

The case of Nirbhaya the year-old medical student who died after a brutal gang rape on a bus in New Delhi has seemed to snap India to attention about its prevalent sexual violence problem. People poured into the streets of New Delhi to mourn and condemn this brutality. But what needs to be comprehended is that in the recent years violence against Indian women has widespread and has taken deep roots in our society.

Be it safety of women outside or inside the confinement of their homes…Women turn out to be the biggest targets. The Reuters Trust Law group named India one of the worst countries in the world for women this year. A recent national family-health survey also reported that a sizable percentage of women blame themselves for beatings by their husbands. How and when a country with such rich heritage and a high pedestal for women came crashing down to this.

It is difficult to accept that our homes are not a safe haven for our women. Acceptance of domestic violence glorifies the man dominated society that we have become.

Yes, a man dominated society indeed as domestic violence has seeped into all the economic strata. If a woman residing in a slum feels unsafe about her drunken husband returning home, so does a woman in an upscale area who shakes to the fact of an altercation with her husband over fidelity or possessiveness. The Present Study This paper looks into the various aspects that revolve around the heinous crime.

It is based on Secondary data. Information was collected from newspaper, magazine, internet, Google and Wikipedia search. The values of this report consist of women exploitation in different causes such as rape, molestation and sexual harassment.

Case study of different reports of women rape was also highlighted in NCR and different parts of India. Rape case happened in Delhi and NCR is given prior concern in this study.

One such woman who is holding her ground and fighting for justice is Suzette Jordan. She is the infamous Park Street Rape Victim. The night took an ugly turn, she was gang raped and thrown from a car onto the street. Her frightening catastrophe became a political football. The Chief Minister, Mamta Banerjee, said the complaint had been fabricated to malign her government.

She finally mustered courage with the support of her parents and daughters who stood by her through this tribulation. The stigma of rape has unfortunately been responsible in her not been able to find herself a job in spite of eminent Women activists backing her. Her job profile helps her not only in healing but also helping.

Damayanti Sen who was transferred as DIG training to Barrackpore, a posting considered low-profile in police circles. The transfer came as a punishment for Ms.

Sen who had cracked the SuzzetteJordans case within four days of the accused being arrested. Despite political honchos screaming foul play and inconsistency, Ms. Sen stood by the victim and led the investigation which ended with the arrests of four men. Her effort earned her a lot of public praise. Suzette calls Ms. But the opposition the top cop had to face for standing by the truth is unacceptable.

It is deeply ingrained in our culture that this is the natural order of things—that women are prey and therefore obliged to behave in a way that can prevent or avoid harassment and assault. The result of this is that behaviour which genuinely is problematic to the extent that it is criminal — the willingness of so many men to target and exploit women who are drunk, or use alcohol as an excuse for assaulting them — is never challenged or even addressed.

According to the Indian Medical Association, amongst sexual violence, rape in particular, is considered the most under-reported violent crime. Year No. Deciphering Rape in India Focusing on the recent spurt of rape cases, which have the highest trail of traumatized victims- the plight of a helpless mother watching her suffering daughter is unfortunately the most heart wrenching.

The most recent and highly noticed case of this magnitude has been the one on 26th December with no disrespect to the brave victim who eventually lost her battle with life, it is sad to see the lack of support extended towards her immediate family who are the worst affected by the incident.

A detailed study of the report Wikipedia brings forth some harsh truths, like how the victims of the incident were left in the freezing cold , in the middle of a busy road with constantly running traffic and it took a long time for a person to stop and offer to help out.

Also the fact where the male victim has completely been sidelined, there is no mention about the trauma or psychological impact of what he may have gone through or may still be going through.

The declaration of funds or offering jobs to the next of victims may offer a temporary relief but it is clear that the loss of a child, sibling or friend cannot be compensated at any level May 19, , Times of India.

Another case of a 5 year old in East Delhi, where along with the highly traumatized little child, the parents too are suffering. The insensitive approach of law enforcers, trying to hush up the matter and threatening the family of the victim are again a glaring evidence of the gradual death of humanity from which this country suffers.

The Imrana rape case is the case of the sexual assault of a 28 year-old Indian Muslim woman by her father-in-law on 6 June in Charthawal village in the Muzaffarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh Wikipedia.

Due to such fatwa Imrana is in a way being prosecuted instead of her rapist father in law as she is being ordered to leave her husband and start a life with her rapist similar article April 21, ,Times of India. Secondly – Without her consent.

Thirdly – With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is interested, in fear of death or of hurt. Fourthly – With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband, and that her consent is given because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be lawfully married.

Fifthly – With her consent, when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupefying or unwholesome substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent. Sixthly – With or without her consent, when she is under sixteen years of age. Explanation – Penetration is sufficient to constitute the sexual intercourse necessary to the offence of rape.

Exception – Sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years of age, is not rape. The above definition excluded marital rape, same sex crimes and considered all sex with a minor below the age of sixteen as rape.

After 2 April , the definition was revised through the Criminal Law Amendment Act , which also raised the legal age of minor to eighteen.

Fourthly – With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband and that her consent is given because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be lawfully married. Fifthly – With her consent when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupefying or unwholesome Substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent.

Sixthly – With or without her consent, when she is under eighteen years of age. Seventhly – When she is unable to communicate consent. Explanation 2 – Consent means an unequivocal voluntary agreement when the woman by words, gestures or any form of verbal or non-verbal communication, communicates willingness to participate in the specific sexual act; Provided that a woman who does not physically resist to the act of penetration shall not by the reason only of that fact, be regarded as consenting to the sexual activity.

Exceptions – 1. A medical procedure or intervention shall not constitute rape; 2. Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years of age, is not rape. Article B of the law made forced sexual intercourse by a man with his wife — if she is living separately — a crime, whether under a decree of separation or otherwise, punishable with at least a 2-year prison term. Forced sex by a man on his wife may also be considered a prosecutable domestic violence under other sections of Indian penal code, such as Section A as well as the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act.

The crime of sexual assault on a child, that is anyone below the age of eighteen, is further outlined and mandatory punishments described in the The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act All sexual acts between the members of the same sex, consensual or forced, remains a crime under Section of Indian penal code, after the Criminal Law reform, with punishment same as that of rape.

Functional Definition of Rape: As regards the functional definition of rape, it is predominantly a gendered crime and abuse of power by men toward women, based on a real lack of understanding of equality issues. Despite recent efforts to help women who have been raped to receive justice, societal attitudes continue to play a significant role in limiting justice for women who have experienced this crime. Many victims and their families may not seek help because they fear that no one will believe them.

A victim of sexual assault should be treated with dignity and respect is the unspoken humanitarian rule. Deciphering Rape in India 35 Nonjudgmental belief in her is very crucial.

Focusing on the facts as reported by the victim and her family, recording them completely and unbiased can be very reassuring to them. This leads to the establishment of a very large psychologically disturbed and unresolved population that is not capable of shouldering the responsibility of being model citizens.

Recovery from sexual assault is a complicated and controversial Phenomenon. Some people believe that with counseling and time you can recover completely from a sexual assault. Others maintain that some aspect of a sexual assault will be with the victim of the assault forever. Some argue that recovery is the wrong term because it is associated with illness or disease and that the effects of a sexual assault should not be viewed in such a light. No matter what your perspective on this debate may be, it cannot be denied that violated victims and their families need both medical and emotional rehabilitation.

The loss of losing a child can be a lifelong guilt and sorrow which unwillingly the parent endures for no fault of their own. Sexual Assault Statistics say that every 2 minutes someone in the world is sexually assaulted. Source — Indian Medical Association 3. Sexual assault by a partner can be very difficult not only for women to disclose or walk away from, but even, sometimes, because of circumstantial pressures, to fully admit to themselves.

It is still a widely held myth that women cannot be raped by their husbands or partners. The damage done when a woman is raped by her partner can be extremely serious. The experience of rape for a woman in this situation is compounded by a complete breach of trust by someone once loved — often the foundation of her personal life and security.

Inevitably, this can leave her fearful of what confronting that might mean. Kiranjit set her abusive husband on fire after suffering years of domestic abuse including physical violence, food deprivation, and marital rape.

The police use to frequently visit their residence on complains of assault but never took any strict action her own family reprimanded her, saying it was a matter of family honour that she remain with her husband.

Her life story made British courts recognize provocation in cases of domestic homicide. Additionally, the victim may be in shock and not realize an injury has occurred.

It is estimated that only 1 in 5 cases are reported. Although this estimate can fluctuate, it is noted that many sexually assaulted victims do not report rape to the police or go to a hospital for treatment. Valid reasons for the reluctance to report assaults include judgmental treatment by medical and legal authorities, humiliation and secondary victimization and stigma. In October , a Delhi woman filed a complaint against a man she accused of drugging her, abducting her and taking her to Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, to register their marriage.

Two-thirds of married Indian women surveyed by the United Nations Population Fund claimed to have been forced into sex by their husbands. The trafficking network is vast, the agencies liaise with natives of remote villages, who, as local agents lure underage girls from extremely poor families and bait them to the city with the promise of a good job.

Once the girls are in the city, the agents sell them to placement agency and then the agency re-sells them to brothels and escort agencies as sex workers or to families as domestic labour. As a domestic help the girls are made to work 14 to 16 hours per day and do all of the household chores, from cooking and cleaning to baby- sitting. They are paid almost nothing. Often their monthly wage is paid to the agencies—not to them.

The traffickers and agencies make the most of their vulnerability and, for years, move them from one household to another. Many are sexually exploited by the family members. There are no policies that entitle domestic workers to minimum wage or to benefits such as health insurance, pension, or leave from work. The girls who get sold into flesh business go through severe sexual abuse and are more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases.

Sexual exploitation through sex tourism, child sex tourism, pedophilia and prostitution in places of religious pilgrimage and other tourist destinations are all on the increase.

Sex trafficking of women and girls within the country is widespread and some are subjected to transnational sexual exploitation and sold to various countries. For all these girls, recovering from the trauma of their horrific experiences is extremely difficult. It is at this stage that the desperate need for effective centers of counseling is underscored.

It is the most basic step, necessary for the girls to restart their lives with dignity and strength. Yet there are few such resources. A report by the Geneva-based International Labour Organization found that the number of domestic workers in India ranges from 2.

And despite being the largest workforce in the country, the workers are unrecognized and unprotected by Indian law. The statistics show an alarming rise in crime. But in reality there are many women who do not report sex crimes because female police officers are not available and they are apprehensive sharing such information with the men.

Of the district police stations in Delhi, only one has a female station house officer. The reason of apprehension arises because majority of the times when women report rape charges to male police, they are frequently demeaned. They ask inappropriate questions and show no empathy towards the victim, making her go through the trauma of being raped and abused all over again. Unavailability of proper rape kits and humiliating medical procedure of rape investigation cause the victim to petrify and take the decision of not reporting the case all together.

The stigma attached to a rape victim in our society makes the matter worse. The victim gets blamed that they brought it on themselves by their provocative dressing. Girls in many parts of India have been banned from wearing skirts as a uniform, citing it as the reason for increased cases of sexual harassment.

We need to understand that one psychological setup cannot fuel all the rapes. Sex can be an objective but it can also be an instrument that leads to the achievement of another objective. Some of the most common psychological drives behind why men rape are: 3. By overpowering someone from the opposite sex the man can feel relieved of the shame of rejection.

The subconscious mind makes the rapist believe that people who share certain similarities are the same person. Like one might fall in love with a woman just because she looks like a woman you loved before, same goes for rape.

A man can rape a woman just because she resembles a woman who rejected him earlier. Feeling superior to women and Expression of power: The mindset that men are superior to women makes a lot of men prove their superiority over women by dominating and forcing themselves on women to prove the fact.

In other words some men rape women in order to assert their manhood and masculinity. Suppose that a man had a very tough boss who happened to be a woman. Those men are put under pressure by their peers and as a result they start to experience shame. Some of those men start to rape in order to compensate for the lack of intimacy in their social lives. Regaining control: I explained how people who lack control over their own lives try to exert control over the less powerful ones they know.

There are some anti-social elements that are ticking time-bombs, capable of committing crimes and disregarding rules of society. But most of these perpetrators do not set off alarms by their behaviour, appearance and conduct as they are regular looking men with whom women and children interact as a part of society.

These men are our local neighbours, trusted friends, teachers, and even family members. There is nothing wrong in being a patriarchal society; the problem in India is that mentally people are trapped by feudal mindsets, which reinforce the belief that men are superior.

Men who grow up with such mindset lose regard for the women and try to overpower them by exercising domination over them and committing rape or sexual crimes. Studies have found that rape is not usually an outcome of lust but men predominantly rape as a measure of taking revenge on the women, in order to teach a lesson and to hurt their spirit.

It has also been found that assailants driven by lust have no intention of killing their victim; on the contrary men seeking out revenge are capable of causing further harm to their victim as they derive sadistic satisfaction by inflicting pain on their victims.

Deciphering Rape in India 41 In the Nirbhaya case, the accused during the trial stated that because she reacted to their taunts and spoke back and stood up to them she was raped and subsequently tortured as a punishment. Men who commit gang-rapes are driven by group mentality and predominantly wish to be held in high esteem amongst their peers.

They demonstrate sexually aggressive behaviour in order to prove their toughness and masculinity. Men derive sexual pleasure from these acts and also enjoy inflicting humiliation on to the physically weaker side. Experts believe that the perpetrators, who sexually exploit the children, develop this disorder for sexual preferences from childhood experiences during critical periods in human development.

In many cases, paedophiles have been molested themselves as children, when they lacked the ability to control the situation. By sexually assaulting children, paedophiles attempt to re-live the trauma they experienced and the complete role reversal gives them the upper hand and prevents them from being victimized. The way women dress is routinely cited as an provocation to rape, sheer and clinging fabrics, cleavage, bare midriffs, short skirts and liberally applied make-up are common in the context of rape trials.

Women are often judged on the basis of the way they present themselves. The assumption that such choices can lead to rape are ludicrous and extremely damaging. Although she is the victim, it is the woman, and not her alleged attacker who is held up for public examination. Inspecting the way in which a woman was dressed at the time of an assault is one of many ways in which common myths and prejudices are exploited in order to damage her reputation and credibility in the interests of the defense.

The perpetrator whose behaviour and intentions are of far more relevance than the victims clothing is rarely asked to take the stand or made to account for his choices or behaviour. The purpose of such distortion is to give jurors the impression that the woman is provocative and therefore to blame for the assault.

The right to sexual autonomy to which all of us are entitled means complete control over what we do with our bodies, with whom, when — and for how long. However, although alcohol consumption is something in which anyone over 18 is free to indulge, in the public discourse around rape and sexual assault, its significance is something that plays out very differently for women than it does for men.

Alcohol is seen both as something that greatly increases the vulnerability of women not only to rape, but also, perversely, to accusations of blame for that rape. Although it is men who perpetrate rape, it is women who are urged to modify their behaviour by abstaining or drinking less, and thus accommodate the danger posed by predatory men. Alcohol is used by men who rape both as a means of incapacitating the women they assault, and also as an excuse for their own behaviour.

Deciphering Rape in India 43 The rigid, deep rooted and out of sync social attitudes make Indian women face umpteen challenges in accessing education, work, equal status, freedom of movement and choice which further aid violence against women. We need to get a better understanding of our culture; by going back in time and revisiting the Vedas and understanding that how over the time we have twisted customs and traditions to destroy the actual eminence that the women in India once enjoyed.

Easy access to education for women needs to be emphasized. We need to reach out to people through word of mouth and advocate the positives it will bring towards women and the society. Men need to be made aware that a NO actually means NO.

A woman needs to be respected and treated equal. She has equal right to share workplace, home or any other platform in the society with a man. And in doing so she needs to be accepted, protected and appreciated. People in society need to take the issue of rape more seriously. They need to be sensitized and made aware of dealing with the victims in order to empathize with the victim and in order to act as a support to them instead of victimizing them more.

For each phrase we need 5 bits plus an extra bit to represent the new source output. Triangular distribution, unit variance 4. Problem 4. From the result of Problem 2. Therefore, the MSK signal can be generated as a staggered four phase PSK signal with a half-period sinusoidal pulse for g t. Clearly the spectrum for the rectangular pulse has a narrower main lobe. However, it has higher sidelobes.

Hence, the conditions are also necessary. Suppose, for example, that s t has the following spectrum. From Problem 4. Now, from Problem 4. Hence, the Markov chain model will be the Cartesian product of the Markov model that was derived in Problem 4. Below, we give a partial sketch of the Markov chain model; the rest of it can be derived easily, from the symmetries of this model.

The derivation is identical to that given in Sec. If we average over the random phases, these terms drop out. Problem 5. It is straightforward to see that the information sequence In is simply the phase of the lowpass signal, i. The last form is indeed the original form of the correlation metrics C r, sm. Thus, 0. Since U1 , U2 are independent, it is straightforward to prove that W1 , W2 are independent, too.

This is because there are fully connected graphs consisted of three points. To see this consider an equilateral triangle with vertices A, B and C. Thus the required signal to noise ratio is 5 dB less when the additive noise is Gaussian. Hence, the message m1 is more vulnerable to errors. The reason for that is that it has both threshold lines close to it, while the other two signals have one of the their threshold lines further away.

We can easily verify that each two of the combined states, which were obtained in this problem, give one terminal phase state. Hence, the error probability is the probability of the union of the event E1 that another correlation metric is greater in absolute value and the event E2 that the signal correlation metric has the wrong sign. From this point, following the exact same steps as in Problem 5. The integral involving the Bessel function cannot be evaluated in closed form.

The covariances are e. Note 0, o. For this frequency separation the binary signals are orthogonal with coherent detection. Problem 6.

Thus, the early-late gate synchronizer is a close approximation to the timing recovery system. Upon performing the integration over R, as in Sec. The operation of the PLL is described in the next part. The negative sign indicates that the SNR is decreased by 0.

Problem 7. We note that the capacity of the channel is zero when all transitions are equally likely i. Clearly, the above channel cannot support this transmission rate. We have assumed that the output space of both channels has been augmented by adding two new symbols so that the size of the matrices Q, Q1 and Q2 is the same. The transition probabilities to these newly added output symbols is equal to zero. If we start at the input labeled 0, then the output will be 0. This means that we can achieve better results compared to the memoryless case at a given rate.

In other words the distortion at a given rate for a source with memory is less than the distortion for a comparable source with memory. Since there are n slots over which we transmit the message signals, the dimensionality of the signal space is upper bounded by 2n.

Also, the probability of error for the BSC is p, where p is the error rate for the modulation method employed. Both these conclusions agree with the well-known results on the performance of these schemes, as given by their error probabilities given in Chapter 5. This can be also obtained by generating all 8 codewords for this code and checking their minimum weight.

Problem 8. The next candidate value of n is Then, we will erroneously select a codeword Cm of! More Filters. A perceptual model of motion quality for rendering with adaptive refresh-rate and resolution. ACM Trans. View 1 excerpt, cites methods.

Frontiers in Neuroscience. The refresh rate is one of the important parameters of visual presentation devices, and assessing the effect of the refresh rate of a device on motion perception has always been an important … Expand.

View 1 excerpt, cites results. Voronoi-Based Foveated Volume Rendering. View 2 excerpts, references background. The un suitability of modern liquid crystal displays LCDs for vision research. View 1 excerpt, references methods.


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