Microsoft SQL Server – Wikipedia.Windows Server R2 Product Key
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As a database serverit is a software product with the primary function of storing and retrieving data as requested by other software applications —which may run either on the same computer or on another computer across a network including the Internet.
Microsoft markets at least a dozen different editions of Microsoft SQL Server, aimed at different audiences and for workloads ranging from small single-machine applications to large Internet-facing applications with many concurrent users.
Its name is entirely descriptive, it being server software that responds to queries in the SQL language. As of July [update]the following versions are supported by Microsoft:. From SQL Server onward, the product is supported on x64 processors windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free and must have 1. The RTM version is Microsoft makes SQL Server available in multiple editions, with different feature sets and targeting different users.
These editions are:  . /15977.txt protocol layer implements the external interface to SQL Server. TDS is an application layer protocol, used to transfer data between a database server and a client. Initially designed and developed by Sybase Inc. Consequently, access to SQL Server is available over these protocols. Data storage is a databasewhich is a collection of tables with typed columns.
SQL Server supports different data types, including primitive types such as IntegerFloatDecimalChar including character stringsVarchar variable length character stringsbinary for unstructured blobs of dataText for textual data among others. In addition to tables, a database can also contain other objects including viewsstored proceduresindexes and constraintsalong with a transaction log. A SQL Server database windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free contain a maximum of 2 31 windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free, страница can span multiple OS-level files with a maximum file size of 2 60 bytes 1 exabyte.
Secondary data windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free, identified with a. Log files are identified with the. Storage space allocated to a database is divided into sequentially numbered pageseach 8 KB in size. A page is marked with a byte header which stores metadata about the page including the page number, page type, free space on the page and the ID of the object that owns it. The page type defines the data contained in the page.
This data includes: data stored in the database, an index, an allocation map, which holds information about how pages are allocated to tables and indexes; and a change map which holds information about the changes made to other pages windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free last backup or logging, or contain large data types such as image or text.
A database object can either span all 8 pages r22 an extent “uniform extent” or share an extent with up to 7 more objects “mixed extent”. A row in a database table cannot span more than one page, so is limited to 8 KB in size. However, if the data exceeds 8 KB and the row contains varchar or varbinary data, the data in those columns are moved to a new page or possibly a sequence of pages, called an allocation unit and replaced with a pointer to the data. For physical storage of a table, its rows are divided into a series of partitions numbered 1 to n.
The partition size is user defined; by default all rows are in a single partition. A table is split into multiple partitions in order to spread a database over a computer windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free. Rows in each partition are stored in either B-tree or heap structure. If the table has an associated, clustered index to allow fast retrieval of rows, the rows are stored in-order according to their index values, with a B-tree providing the index.
The data is in the windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free node of the leaves, and other nodes storing the index values for the leaf data reachable from the respective nodes. If the index is non-clustered, the rows are not sorted according to the windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free keys.
An indexed view has the same storage structure as an indexed table. A table without a clustered index is stored in an unordered heap structure. However, the table may have non-clustered indices to allow fast retrieval of rows. In some situations the heap structure has performance advantages over the clustered structure. Both heaps and B-trees can span multiple allocation units. Any 8 KB page can be buffered in-memory, and the set of all pages currently buffered is called the buffer cache.
The amount sevrer memory available to SQL Server decides how many windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free will be cached in memory.
The buffer cache is managed by the Buffer Manager. Either reading from or writing to any page copies it to the buffer cache. Subsequent reads or writes are redirected to the in-memory copy, rather than the on-disc version.
The page is updated on the disc by the Buffer Адрес страницы only if the in-memory cache has not windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free referenced for some time. Each page is written along with its checksum when it is written. When reading the page back, windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free checksum is computed again and matched with the stored version to ensure the page has not been damaged or tampered with in the meantime.
SQL Server allows multiple clients to use the same database concurrently. As such, it needs to control concurrent access to shared data, to ensure data integrity—when multiple clients update the same data, or clients attempt to read data that is in the process of being changed by another client. SQL Server provides two modes of concurrency control: pessimistic concurrency and optimistic concurrency. When pessimistic concurrency control is being used, Windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free Server controls concurrent access by using locks.
Locks can be either shared or exclusive. Exclusive lock grants the user exclusive access to the data—no other user can access the generlc as long as the lock is held. Shared locks are used when some data is being read—multiple users can yeneric from data locked with a shared lock, but not acquire an exclusive lock.
The latter would have to wait for all shared locks to be released. Locks can be applied on different levels of granularity—on entire tables, pages, or even on a keyy basis on tables.
For indexes, it can either be on the entire index or on index leaves. The level of granularity to be used is defined on a per-database basis by больше информации database administrator. While a fine-grained locking system allows more users to use the table or index simultaneously, it requires more resources, so it does not automatically yield higher performance. SQL Server also includes two more lightweight mutual exclusion solutions—latches and spinlocks—which are less robust than locks but are less resource intensive.
SQL Server also monitors all worker threads that acquire locks to ensure that they do not end up in deadlocks —in case they do, SQL Server /16466.txt remedial measures, which in many cases are to kill one of the ksy entangled in a deadlock and roll back the transaction it started.
The Lock Manager maintains an generlc table keyy manages the database objects and locks, if any, on them along with other metadata about the lock. Access to any shared object is mediated by the lock manager, which either grants access to windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free resource or blocks it.
SQL Server also provides the optimistic concurrency control mechanism, which is similar to the multiversion concurrency control used in other databases. The mechanism allows a windowws version of a row to be generuc whenever the row is updated, as opposed to overwriting the row, i. Both the old as well as the new versions of the row are stored and maintained, though the old versions are moved out of the database into a system database identified as Tempdb.
When a row is in the process of being updated, any other requests are not blocked unlike locking but are executed on the older version of the row. If the other request is an update statement, it will result in two different versions of the rows—both of them will be stored by the database, identified by their respective transaction IDs.
The main mode of windosw data from a SQL Server database is querying for it. The query windiws specifies what is to be retrieved. It is geenric by the query free, which figures out the sequence of steps that will be necessary to retrieve the requested data. The sequence of actions necessary to execute a query is called a query plan. There might be multiple ways to wtandard the same query. For example, for a stxndard that contains a join statement and a select statement, executing join on both the tables and then executing select on the results would give the same result as selecting from each table and then executing the join, but result in different execution plans.
In such case, SQL Server chooses the plan that is expected to yield the results in the shortest possible time. This is called query optimization and is performed by the query processor itself. SQL Server includes a cost-based query optimizer which tries to optimize on the cost, in terms of the resources it will take to execute the query. Given standwrd query, then the query optimizer looks at the database schemathe database statistics and the system load at that time.
It then decides which sequence to access the tables referred in the query, which sequence to execute the operations and what access method to be used to access the tables. For example, if the table has an associated index, whether the index should be used or not: if the windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free is on a column which is not ссылка на страницу for most of the columns low “selectivity”it might not be worthwhile to use the index to access the data.
Finally, it decides whether to execute the query concurrently or not. While a concurrent execution is more costly in terms of total processor time, because the execution is actually split to different processors might mean it will execute faster. Once a query plan is generated for a query, it is temporarily cached. For further invocations of the same query, the cached plan приведенная ссылка used.
Unused plans are windows server 2012 r2 standard generic key free after some time. SQL Server also allows stored procedures to be defined. Stored procedures are parameterized T-SQL queries, that are stored in the server itself and not issued by the client application as is the case with general queries. Stored procedures can accept values sent by the client as input parameters, and send ket results as output parameters.
They can call defined functions, and other stored procedures, including the same stored посетить страницу источник up to a set number of times. They can be selectively provided access to. Unlike other queries, stored procedures have an associated name, which is used at runtime to resolve into the actual queries.
Also because the code need not be sent from the client every time as it can be accessed by nameit reduces network traffic and somewhat improves performance.
It exposes keywords for the operations that can be performed on SQL Server, including creating and altering database schemas, entering and editing data in the database as well as monitoring and managing the server itself.
Client applications that consume data or manage the server will leverage SQL Server functionality by sending T-SQL queries and statements windows upgrade home to free download are then processed by the server and results or errors returned to the client application.
For this it exposes read-only tables from which server statistics can be read. Management functionality is exposed via system-defined stored procedures which can be invoked from T-SQL queries to perform the management operation.
Linked servers allow a single query to process generi performed on multiple servers. It natively implements support for the SQL Server features including the Tabular Data Stream implementation, support for mirrored SQL Server databases, full support for all data types supported by SQL Server, asynchronous operations, query notifications, encryption support, as well as receiving multiple result sets in a single database session.
NET Framework. Unlike most other applications that use. NET Egneric runtimei.